Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary On SwissMTB: Establishing Comprehensive Molecular Cancer Diagnostics In Swiss Clinics

Franziska Singer1,2, Daniel J. Stekhoven1,2*

1NEXUS Personalized Health Technologies, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 7, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland

2SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 4058 Basel, Switzerland

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Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary: Comprehensive Treatment with Chinese Medicine in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Yingtian Wang, Ying Zhang, Jie Liu, Huiting Fan, Xueqian Wang, Hong-sheng Lin*

Department of Oncology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China

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Vol 2-6 Commentary and Opinion Article

Mechanisms of Epigenetic Toxicity in the Pathogenesis of Cancer for "Precision Medicine"

James E. Trosko

Department of Pediatrics/Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

While the concept of “precision medicine” is not new, sophisticated technologies have led to a view that the data generated will provide individuals, physicians and public policy-makers with the information required to predict, intervene and protect against many diseases. However, without understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, such as the mutagenicity, cytotoxicity or epigenetic alterations, induced by agents to which a human has been exposed, and with pathogenic events, such as birth defects, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune responses, and reproductive or neurological diseases, there will be no “precision”. The aim of this “Commentary” is that, while mutations and cell death contribute to human diseases, including cancers, the toxicity of chemicals is primarily due to epigenetic effects on human organ-specific adult stem cells. From the perspective of biological evolution, the transition from single- to multi-cellular organisms, along with the generation of new genes and cellular processes, led to the evolution of Homo sapiens and “cultural evolution”. This transition has created a “collision” of the slow biological evolution of genes that are important for survival in various environments, with extremely fast cultural evolution. This has occurred when cultural evolution has provided new means of migration for both people and foods, as well as new methods of agriculture and food production/distribution/processing. The population explosion, ecological alterations, global climate changes, and worldwide economic disparities all have a bearing on how the increases in median life span and the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases are managed in the face of globally limited healthcare resources.

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