Vol 2-4 Review Article

Constitutive Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression

Maryam Ghotbaddini, Vivian Moultrie, Joann B. Powell*

Clark Atlanta University- Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development 223 James P. Brawley Drive Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Research on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has largely focused on its activation by various environmental toxins. Consequently, only limited inferences have been made regarding its constitutive activity in the absence of an exogenous ligands. Evidence has shown that AhR is constitutively active in advanced prostate cancer cell lines which model castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC cells can thrive in an androgen depleted environment. However, AR signaling still plays a major role. Although several mechanisms have been suggested for the sustained AR signaling, much is still unknown. Recent studies suggest that crosstalk between constitutive AhR and Src kinase may sustained AR signaling in CRPC. AhR forms a protein complex with Src and plays a role in regulating Src activity. Several groups have reported that tyrosine phosphorylation of AR protein by Src leads to AR activation, thereby promoting the development of CRPC. This review evaluates reports that implicate constitutive AhR as a key regulator of AR signaling in CRPC by utilizing Src as a signaling intermediate.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/5.1136 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-4 Review Article

A Review of Web Portal Use by Oncology Patients

Steven S. Coughlin1,2*, Lee Caplan3, Lufei Young4

1Department of Population Health Sciences, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA

2Research Service, Charlie Norwood Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Augusta, GA

3Morehouse College of Medicine, Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Atlanta, GA

4College of Nursing, Augusta University, Augusta, GA

Background: Patient portals and other Internet-based technologies have been increasingly used to improve cancer care coordination. Patient portals may introduce special considerations in oncology populations where longitudinal outpatient care is often more intensive than in most other specialties.

Methods: This article, which is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed, reviews the literature on web portal use by cancer patients. Articles published in English from 2000 to August 2018 were identified using the following MeSH search terms and Boolean algebra commands: web portal AND cancer. Information obtained from bibliographic searches (title and topic of article, information in abstract, and keywords) was used to determine whether to retain each article identified in this way.

Results: A total of 263 article citations were identified in the bibliographic searches. Of these, 10 met the eligibility criteria. A variety of study designs were used including focus groups, usability testing, in-person interviews, questionnaire surveys, retrospective cohort, and non-randomized trial. Cancer patients had reached modest levels of portal use. Increased portal use has been associated with younger age, white race, and higher socioeconomic status. Most cancer patients used portals to look up testing results and provide notes, but had difficulty in interpreting the results appropriately.

Conclusions: Our study adds to the growing evidence that patient portals play a significant role in promoting self-management in cancer survivors. Additional studies are needed to determine factors influencing portal use, so effective interventions can be developed to enhance portal use.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/6.1154 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-4 Mini Review

Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Review of Surgical Treatment

Joseph A. Di Como1, Christina W. Lee2, Sharon M. Weber2*

Department of Surgery, Conemaugh Memorial Medical Center, Johnstown PA, USA

Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/6.1143 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-4 Review Article

Potential Diagnostic Techniques for Cervical Cancer Prevention - Review

Igor M. A. Melo, Eliane A. Ribeiro, Renata A. Canevari*

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular do Câncer, Instituto de Pesquisa & Desenvolvimento (IP&D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brasil

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and several studies have proven the close relationship between HPV and the development of cervical cancer. Several tests are currently performed for early and reliable diagnosis, in which the cervical cytology evaluation by the Papanicolaou method is highlighted. However, errors in the collection and misinterpretation of cell differentiation degree in smear by the pathologist result in incorrect or inaccurate results. Considering these points, it is of utmost importance to develop new technologies that perform accurate and reliable diagnosis and that present financial advantages and accessibility. Currently, molecular biology assays are excellent detectors of viral DNA, but it presents disadvantages, such as the need for high financial resources to gain access. Therefore, this review has the objective of highlighting the main diagnostic techniques that are already being used, such as specific kits for the detection of high-risk HPVs, or methodologies that are still in the study phase, but which already present good results, such as the application of physical FTIR spectroscopy principles and ultrasensitive biosensors.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/6.1132 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-4 Commentary and Opinion Article

Mechanisms of Epigenetic Toxicity in the Pathogenesis of Cancer for "Precision Medicine"

James E. Trosko

Department of Pediatrics/Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

While the concept of “precision medicine” is not new, sophisticated technologies have led to a view that the data generated will provide individuals, physicians and public policy-makers with the information required to predict, intervene and protect against many diseases. However, without understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, such as the mutagenicity, cytotoxicity or epigenetic alterations, induced by agents to which a human has been exposed, and with pathogenic events, such as birth defects, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune responses, and reproductive or neurological diseases, there will be no “precision”. The aim of this “Commentary” is that, while mutations and cell death contribute to human diseases, including cancers, the toxicity of chemicals is primarily due to epigenetic effects on human organ-specific adult stem cells. From the perspective of biological evolution, the transition from single- to multi-cellular organisms, along with the generation of new genes and cellular processes, led to the evolution of Homo sapiens and “cultural evolution”. This transition has created a “collision” of the slow biological evolution of genes that are important for survival in various environments, with extremely fast cultural evolution. This has occurred when cultural evolution has provided new means of migration for both people and foods, as well as new methods of agriculture and food production/distribution/processing. The population explosion, ecological alterations, global climate changes, and worldwide economic disparities all have a bearing on how the increases in median life span and the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases are managed in the face of globally limited healthcare resources.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/6.1152 View / Download Pdf