Vol 3-4 Case Report

Second Re-Irradiation as A Salvage Treatment in A Patient with Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

Guler Yavas1*, Huseyin Yılmaz2, Kaan Oysul3, Cagdas Yavas1, Osman Vefa Gul1, Cetin Celik4

1*Selcuk University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Konya, Turkey

2Selcuk University, Department of General Surgery, Konya, Turkey

3Medicana International Ankara, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ankara, Turkey

4Selcuk University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Konya, Turkey

The management of loco-regional recurrences from endometrial cancer is challenging since there are limited data regarding to management of recurrent endometrial cancer. Therapeutic options are often limited particularly for the patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Patients who present with loco-regional recurrence after curative surgery and adjuvant RT are ideal for salvage surgery; However, the salvage surgery is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Re-irradiation could be an option for selected patients. However, pelvic re-irradiation is challenging and is often approached reluctantly by radiation oncologist due to the tolerance limits of nearby normal tissues which may lead severe chronic toxicities. Herein we report a case of recurrent endometrial cancer who underwent second re-irradiation in addition to multiple cytoreductive debulking surgery.

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Vol 3-4 Mini Review

B7 Family Proteins in Cancer Progression: Immunological and Non-Immunological Functions

Qin Ye1, Jiayang Liu2, Ke Xie1*

1Department of Oncology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, P.R. China

2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, P.R. China

The B7 family of proteins is commonly divided into three classes according to their structure and the type of receptor they bind to. The B7 proteins exhibit both positive and negative functions with regard to the immune response and are known to be co-inhibitory or co-stimulatory ligands that regulate antitumor immune responses. They are also involved in the regulation of cancer progression via non-immunological functions such as accelerating metabolism, promoting proliferation, and facilitating chemoresistance. Given the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and B7 family proteins, each member has been considered as a novel biomarker or therapeutic target that may well improve the effectiveness of cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of B7 proteins and their immunological and non-immunological roles in cancer progression.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/4.1171 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-4 Review Article

Rational Strategies for Combining Bcl-2 Inhibition with Targeted Drugs for Anti-Tumor Synergy

Erin Schwab1, Justin A. Chen1, Jasmine C. Huynh1, Jingran Ji1, Mili Arora1, May Cho1, Edward J. Kim1*

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, USA

Based on the well-established importance of dysregulated apoptosis as a hallmark of cancer, there has been robust interest in development of targeted drugs to promote cancer cell apoptosis. A promising target for promoting apoptosis is the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Bcl-2 family proteins are crucial in maintaining balance between cell survival and death through regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways via pro-survival and pro-apoptotic family members. To date, there has been limited efficacy with Bcl-2 inhibition alone in clinical development with benefit restricted to hematologic malignancies. However, combination approaches to inhibition of Bcl-2 and other oncogenic signaling pathways have provided evidence for potential anti-tumor synergy. We review herein the current evidence for targeting Bcl-2 family proteins as a cancer therapeutic strategy across both hematologic and solid organ malignancies.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/4.1172 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-4 Review Article

Imaging Features of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Targetable Oncogenic Driver Mutations

Dexter P. Mendoza1, Subba R. Digumarthy1*

1Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/4.1174 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-4 Mini Review

Aflatoxin Contamination of Foods in Mozambique: Occurrence, Public Health Implications and Challenges

Alberto Romão Sineque1,2*, Filomena Rosa Dos Anjos3, Custódia Lina Macuamule4

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique

2DREAM Laboratory, Comunidade de Sant’Egídio, Maputo, Mozambique

3Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique

4Department of ParaClinicas, Faculty of Veterinary, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique

Aflatoxins have gained increased recognition worldwide as several researches reveal the negative impacts on health, food security and trade. Major staple foods in Mozambique are prone to aflatoxin contamination, posing health risks to consumers, including the development of liver cancer and the progression of some infectious diseases. Aflatoxin contamination is mainly reported in peanuts, maize and their products. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of aflatoxins and its metabolites in some foodstuffs of animal origin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the Codex permissible limits adopted by the Mozambican Government Authorities. Lack of awareness of occurrence and risks of mycotoxins, legislation enforcement, poor agricultural practices and undiversified diets predispose populations to dietary aflatoxin exposure. Regular surveys on aflatoxin contamination of food and exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples are not yet being performed. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflaoxins. Dietary assessment, clinical measurements and the enforcement of law should be immediately implemented as preventive strategies. With the current research on aflatoxin in Mozambique, both national and global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/4.1139 View / Download Pdf