Vol 6-3 Case Series

Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Case Series

Jennifer A. Marks, MD1, Zahraa Ghandour, MD2, Victoria Collins, MD2, John Schmieg, MD2, Thomas Atkinson, MD3

1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

2Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

3Department of Hematology and Oncology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

Extranodal Natural Killer/T-cell lymphoma, Nasal Type is a rare and aggressive Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma associated with the Epstein-Barr Virus and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. We describe three patient presentations at two medical centers in New Orleans, Louisiana, observed within a six-month interval. Although the disease has a lower incidence in the US than in Asia and Latin America, the incidence appears to be on the rise. Due to the spectrum of clinical presentations and low index of suspicion for the disease, presenting signs and symptoms of ENKL may be misattributed to a non-neoplastic condition, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of the clinical and pathologic spectrum of ENKL, particularly in non-endemic areas, remains an essential means of preventing delay in diagnosis and early initiation of treatment.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2022/3.1200 View / Download Pdf
Vol 6-2 Mini Review

Mini-Review: Pancreatic Cancer Presenting as a Bowel Obstruction and the Role of Next-Generation Sequencing

Bach Ardalan1*, Jose Azqueta1, Jonathan England1, Danny Sleeman1, Rene Hartmann2

1Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center

2Baptist Hospital of Miami

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has increasingly become one of the leading causes of death in western countries. However, presentation with colonic metastases is far less frequently reported in the literature and may be misdiagnosed as colonic adenocarcinoma. This is a case of a female patient with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma that presented with a sigmoid obstruction.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2022/2.1199 View / Download Pdf
Vol 6-1 Mini Review Article

ASPP2, a New Regulator of the Mevalonate Pathway in Cancer

Beibei Liang1,2, Yangyang Xie1, Lisha Zhang1,3, Jian Zhao1,3*

1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai, 201318, China

2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Jiading District Central Hospital Affiliated Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318, China

3Shanghai University of Traditional Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2022/1.1198 View / Download Pdf
Vol 6-1 Original Research Article

Potential Transdermal Cancer Treatment Through Blood Brain Barrier with a Crystalline Neratinib Salt

Thomas E. Beesley1* and Mark V. Beesley2

1TEB Chiral View LLC, Consulting, Towaco, NJ 07082, USA

2MB Manufacturing, Blairstown, NJ 07825, USA

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor Neratinib has demonstrated its efficacy against HER2+ breast cancer metastases as the maleate salt. It has, however, had only a limited success as the maleate acid salt to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due in part to its low oral absorption rate. At high oral doses severe diarrhea occurs. The potential to treat metastasized HER2+ cancer in the cerebellum and spinal cord that effects 30-50% of patients with this condition with a new crystalline salt and a topical application of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution has been investigated. This work proposes to use different Neratinib salts to improve solubility and BBB transport by a transdermal rather than an oral administration protocol. The preparation of the salts is described, and analytical methods developed for LC and LC/MS. The log P coefficient utilizing octanol/buffered water, shake flask method, will be used as a predictor of potential improvement in BBB transfer due to increased lipophilicity. Solubility data is supplied. An extensive review of DMSO and BBB experiments was undertaken leading to the establishment of rules to make this methodology work. First, a log P in the range of 2-4 is essential. Second, amine functions have to be blocked with suitable salts. If an amine function is present, it will be trapped by the endothelial membrane. DMSO has a well-documented favorable toxicological profile and can be sterilized making it safe for oral and parenteral routes. A transdermal protocol using Neratinib succinate in 20/20/60: H2O/EtOH/DMSO is described with all the safety measures presented.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2022/1.1197 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-2 Review Article

Recent Advances in Development of New Technology in Pre and Intra Operative Breast Cancer Diagnoses

Justina A Ugwah1,4, Martin O’Sullivan2, Brian O’Donnell3, Eric J. Moore1,4*

1Life Sciences Interface, Tynadall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland

2Department of Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Cork

3Department of Anaesthesia, Cork University Hospital, Cork

4School of Chemistry, University College Cork

Breast cancer is the second most occurring malignant disease in women. 1 in 9 women will be affected by this disease in their lifetime. The gold standard for breast cancer screening is the mammographic technique, which has its limitations especially for women aged below 40 as a result of breast density. Ongoing research are exploring techniques that can improve detection accuracy as well as reduce time and money spent in advanced stage treatment options. This review paper highlights the different technologies that have been developed for breast cancer diagnoses.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2021/2.1194 View / Download Pdf