Vol 3-4 Mini Review

B7 Family Proteins in Cancer Progression: Immunological and Non-Immunological Functions

Qin Ye1, Jiayang Liu2, Ke Xie1*

1Department of Oncology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, P.R. China

2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, P.R. China

The B7 family of proteins is commonly divided into three classes according to their structure and the type of receptor they bind to. The B7 proteins exhibit both positive and negative functions with regard to the immune response and are known to be co-inhibitory or co-stimulatory ligands that regulate antitumor immune responses. They are also involved in the regulation of cancer progression via non-immunological functions such as accelerating metabolism, promoting proliferation, and facilitating chemoresistance. Given the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and B7 family proteins, each member has been considered as a novel biomarker or therapeutic target that may well improve the effectiveness of cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of B7 proteins and their immunological and non-immunological roles in cancer progression.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/4.1171 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Mini Review

Treatment Options for Non-Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

Xianglong Tan1, Mengyang Li2, Zhiming Zhao1*

1The Second Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The First Medical Center, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China

2Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Fourth Medical Center, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China

Liver metastases occur during the progression of various malignancies. Similar to colorectal cancer, liver metastases of neuroendocrine cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and pancreatic cancer also determine patient prognosis to some extent. With the development of surgical techniques, pharmaceutical research, and perioperative treatment, therapeutic strategies for non-colorectal cancer liver metastases have improved greatly during the last two decades, inevitably leading to some controversies. Here, we have reviewed the current treatment options for non-colorectal cancer with the aim of enhancing our understanding of the latest developments in this field.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1177 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Commentary

Cdk5: A Mediator of Mptp Opening

Saranya NavaneethaKrishnan1, Jesusa L. Rosales1, Ki-Young Lee1*

1Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Arnie Charbonneau Cancer and Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institutes, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1180 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Review Article

Sarcomatoid Transformation in Carcinomas: Is Precision Medicine the Answer?

Juwairiya Arshi1, Feng Yin1*

1Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

Sarcomatoid transformation in a carcinoma is a rare event but frequently associated with advanced disease stage, aggressive clinical behavior and dismal prognosis. It’s likely a result of stepwise gene mutations in pluripotent stem cell and involves the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this review, we discuss the sarcomatoid transformation in various types of cancers. Sarcomatoid transformation in a carcinoma should always be in the differential when there is a sudden increase in size of the tumor during neoadjuvant therapy. Use of agents that interfere with the tyrosine kinase pathway might be the new potential addition to the chemotherapy regimen in these cases. Precision medicine, a rapidly emerging field, seems to be promising in the management of these cancers.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1178 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Commentary

Commentary: “Evaluation of Small Molecule Drug Uptake in Patient-Derived Prostate Cancer Explants by Mass Spectrometry”

Ryan Nguyen1, Cody J. Peer1, William D. Figg1*

1Clinical Pharmacology Program, Office of the Clinical Director, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Herein, the strengths and weaknesses of a study previously published in Scientific Reports will be discussed. The major aim of this study was to investigate the spatial uptake of enzalutamide by intact prostate tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and histological staining. Additionally, quantitative analysis of in situ tissue enzalutamide concentration was achieved by conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The authors demonstrated that enzalutamide rapidly permeates prostate tissue and accumulates in regions containing high epithelial cell counts. While these findings have potential to inform future pharmacodynamic experimental designs and endpoints, this study is limited in its scope by the current state of MALDI-MSI technology, which is not yet sensitive enough to investigate clinically relevant in situ enzalutamide concentrations.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1183 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Review Article

Epigenetic Modifications in Ovarian Cancer: A Review

A. H. M. Zuberi Ashraf1,2, Syeda H. Afroze3, Grace A. Osuji2, Saba Y. Kayani3, Natalie Colon3, Ahmed F. Pantho3, Thomas J. Kuehl3, Kimberly A Pilkinton4, M. Nasir Uddin3,5

1Department of Science & Mathematics, Texas A&M University-Central Texas, Killeen, TX, U.S.A.

2Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX, U.S.A.

3Orion Institute for Translational Medicine, Temple, TX, U.S.A.

4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Houston College of Medicine, Houston, TX, U.S.A.

5Department of Medical Physiology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX, U.S.A.

The purpose of this article is to review the role of different epigenetic modifications in ovarian cancer. Epigenetic changes can lead to disease development, malignant transformation, and drug resistance of ovarian cancer. Silencing, methylation, and histone modification of genes contribute to ovarian cancer formation. miRNAs have frequently been found to be dysregulated in ovarian cancer cells. Cancer stem cells possess incredible DNA-repair mechanisms and higher rates of mutation; therefore, making them very invasive and resistant to most chemotherapeutic agents. The pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, types of epigenetic modifications, role of miRNA, and cancer stem cells are discussed, as well as targeting of epigenetic pathways with alternative interventions, and application of combination therapies. Using newly discovered combination therapies, it might be possible to create means to manipulate the detrimental epigenetic pathways which can lead to earlier detection, prevention, and treatment of ovarian cancer.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1179 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-2 Commentary

Commentary: “My Husband Affects Me More Than My Cancer”: Reflections on Simultaneous Intimate Partner Violence and Breast Cancer Experience in a 48-Year-Old Woman'

Francesca Dionigi1,2*, Valentina Martinelli3, Eugenia Trotti3, Alberta Ferrari2,5, Carlos Alberto Garcia Etienne2, Angelica Della Valle2, Donatella Grasso6, Elisa Ferraris6, Gianpiero Rizzo6, Angioletta Lasagna6, Vincenza Pratico2, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Pierluigi Politi6, Adele Sgarella2,5

1Dottorato di Ricerca in Medicina Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Pavia, 27100, Pavia, Italy

2Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo”, Unità Operativa Complessa di Chirurgia Generale III a indirizzo Senologico e dei tessuti molli, viale Golgi 19, 27100, Pavia, Italy

3Dipartimento di Medicina e Sanità Pubblica, Università dell'Insubria, via Ottorino Rossi 9, 21010 Varese, Italy

4Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, via Ottorino Rossi 9, 21010, Varese, Italy

5Università degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy

6Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico “San Matteo”, Unità Operativa Complessa di Oncologia Medica, Pavia, Italy

We present our commentary about the case of a 48-year-old woman diagnosed with early breast cancer, already presented as publication. A candidate for mastectomy, she refused immediate reconstruction. She was referred to a psycho-oncologist for further evaluation and support. Psychological sessions helped reveal a history of intimate partner violence and helped clarify the reason for her refusal to undergo immediate reconstruction and other uncommon behavior about oncological treatment and disease paths. Our experience highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary practice in which collaboration between surgeons, oncologists, and mental health professionals leads to a more in-depth understanding of the apparently paradoxical behaviors of patients, and to better care for their needs.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2020/2.1181 View / Download Pdf