Vol 3-2 Mini Review

The Promising Role of TGF- ?/SMAD4 in Pancreatic Cancer: The future targeted therapy

Sunjida Ahmed1, Christopher Schwartz1, M. Zahidunnabi Dewan1, Ruliang Xu1*

1Department of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA

The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily includes a group of structurally related cytokines that regulate a wide variety of biological processes. The diversity of its action depends on the dynamic tissue microenvironment, and interplays among the factors involving in the signaling pathway. Although its expression is tightly regulated in normal tissue, overexpression of TGF-β has been identified in multiple tumor types, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In pancreatic tumorigenesis, TGF-β acts initially as a tumor suppressor through phosphorylation and activation of SMAD4/DPC4 gene. Mutation of SMAD4/DPC4 gene results in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in many cancers like lung, colon, and pancreatic cancer. SMAD4 mutation is now recognized in >50% of pancreatic ductal carcinomas. This review is to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value targeting the TGF-β/SMAD4 pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/2.1141 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-2 Commentary

Commentary: Impact of Cost on the Safety of Cancer Pharmaceuticals

Karen A Fitzner1*, Milda Plioplys2

1FH Consultants, 554 Hillcrest Dr, Sawyer, MI, USA

2Clinical & Human Research Protections, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA

A chapter, Impact of cost on the safety of cancer pharmaceuticals, by Fitzner and Oteng Mensah in a recent book, Cancer Policy: Pharmaceutical Safety1, aims to inform readers about the economics associated with the interplay between safety, costs of cancer treatment, and outcomes of cancer care. That chapter includes a general discussion of safety-related costs, cancer care expenditures, and processes that aim to ensure drug safety. It also identifies the negative effects of the high cost of care on patients with cancer and their families. The authors’ focus on safety and cost of cancer pharmaceuticals, while appropriate for the book in which it appears, is limited. Pharmaceutical costs and their impact are only part of the safety story. A more holistic approach to thinking about patient safety can be constructive.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2019/2.1168 View / Download Pdf View Full Text