Vol 2-2 Mini Review

Photodynamic Therapy with Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles: Recent Advances and Therapeutic Considerations

Alondra M. Ortiz Ortiz5, Olivia George6, Khalaf Jasim1,2,7, Andre J. Gesquiere1,2,3,4*

1NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA

2Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

4The College of Optics and Photonics (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus, Mayaguez 00681-9000, Puerto Rico

6Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN 37403, Tennessee

7Department of Chemistry, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Salah Al-Din PO Box 42, Iraq

Many types of cancers require elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) for uncontrolled proliferation. However, this also makes tumor cells more susceptible to ROS induced cell death by additional oxidative stress caused by external stimuli. By selectively targeting cancer cells and tumors that exhibit high levels of ROS with nanotechnology-based materials to trigger further elevation of ROS therapeutic possibilities become available. Specifically, light-activated treatment through Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated as a feasible approach with Photophryn as the leading FDA approved sensitizer. However, such small molecule sensitizers do still have significant hurdles to overcome, including poor solubility, non-targeted delivery, and low absorption of light. In this mini review, recent advances in the development of Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles (CP-NPs) solving these issues are discussed, including amplified ROS generation, tumor targeting, theranostic capabilities, and multimodal CP-NPs. We also give an outlook towards further needs in CP-NP development for clinical application.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/3.1134 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-2 Commentary

Commentary: Synergistic tumoricidal effect of combined hPD-L1 vaccine and HER2 gene vaccine

Wangqian Zhang1, Cun Zhang2*

1,2State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Biotechnology Center, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China, 710032

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/3.1135 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-2 Case Report

The Augusta, Georgia Breast Cancer Survivor Study

Steven S. Coughlin, PhD, MPH1,2*, Valerie Williams, PT, PhD, DPT, OCS3, Nicole Moore, MS, RD, LD1, Deborah Bowen, PhD4, Judith Anglin, PhD, RD, LD, FAND1, Nadine Mansour, MD, MPH1, Gianluca De Leo, PhD, MBA1

1Department of Clinical and Digital Health Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta, GA

2Research Service, Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center, Augusta, GA

3Physical Therapy Department, Augusta University, Augusta, GA

4University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA

Introduction: Several studies have provided important information about health conditions and other challenges faced by women diagnosed with breast cancer and how they can improve their quality of life and reduce their risk of cancer recurrence. Although African American and Hispanic breast cancer patients have a poorer survival than their white counterparts, few studies have compared the experiences of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors.

Objectives: To facilitate collaborative studies on breast cancer survivorship in a multicultural population, including future intervention research on nutrition, and physical activity, and clinical substudies.

Methods: This cohort study consists of a postal survey of up to 1,000 women with a history of a breast cancer diagnosis who reside in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia, USA, and a repeat survey in 4 to 5 years to obtain longitudinal data. The follow-up survey in 4 to 5 years will allow for longitudinal changes in health to be assessed.

Conclusion: The survey will provide a comprehensive picture of the health of breast cancer survivors, across the lifespan, in a large Southern city. A broad range of health issues will be addressed including physical activity, diet, nutrition, personal and family history of cancer, quality-of-life, psychosocial concerns, and beliefs about cancer recurrence risk reduction through lifestyle changes. Through its longitudinal design, the study will also provide important information about changes in physical and mental health as breast cancer survivors advance in age.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/3.1131 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-2 Mini Review

The Challenges of Screening Mammography in Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States: A mini-review and observations from a predominantly Hispanic community.

Julia E. McGuinness1* and Katherine D. Crew1,2,3

1Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032

2Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032

3Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032

Screening mammography is recommended by U.S. medical organizations for breast cancer screening in average risk women because of its demonstrated reductions in breast cancer mortality. However, significant disparities in breast cancer screening utilization and mortality remain among racial/ethnic minorities. Efforts have appropriately been directed at increasing engagement with screening services in these populations, however, there is a dearth of data regarding false-positive rates and overdiagnosis in minority patients engaged in breast cancer screening. We recently examined screening practices among a predominantly Hispanic population presenting to an academic medical center in New York, NY, and found that approximately 53% of women experienced at least one false-positive mammography result over a median of 8.9 years of screening. We also observed that Hispanic women were more likely to screen annually than white women despite recommendations to screen less frequently. In this review, we briefly review the benefits and harms of screening mammography in average-risk women, namely, false-positive results and breast cancer overdiagnosis, followed by a discussion of the disparities in breast cancer screening and mortality among racial/ethnic minority populations. We then present our own recent observations and propose that future interventions among Hispanic and other minority populations could include patient- and provider-centered educational programs that focus on providing a balanced discussion of benefits and harms of screening mammography.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/2.1128 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-2 Case Report and Review Article

Liver transplantation in metastatic intestinal neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review

Samantha Thifani Alrutz Barcelos1*, Adriana Zanoni Dotti2, Juliano Emanuel Herrera3, Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho4

1Medical resident in hepatology HCPA

2Gastroenterologist in São Paulo-SP

3Cardiologist IC-FUC

4Associate Professor of the Pathology Department FMRP-USP

Endocrine tumors of chromaffin cells are most frequent in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, they are the ones of best prognosis. Promising results have been recorded for liver transplantations in case of metastatic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. We exhibit a case report of a patient presenting dyspeptic and carcinoid syndrome, hepatic metastasis diagnosis and primary tumor of the ileum detected through scheduled hepatectomy. Liver transplantation was the chosen therapy given the impossibility of hepatectomy due to hepatic metastatic involvement. Liver transplantation is a healing therapeutic option for patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumor in case of unresectable hepatic metastases. It assures more than 50% survival within 5 years in case of primary tumors in the small intestine. Survival is longer in case of liver transplantation after primary tumor resection than in usual palliative treatments such as embolization and chemoembolization.

The article points out the importance of the therapeutic management of the neuroendocrine gastrointestinal metastatic tumor, with emphasis on performing liver transplantation as a possible curative treatment.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/3.1124 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-2 Mini Review

A Review of Osteosarcoma Therapeutics

Michael W. Beaury1, Megan L. Kelly-Beaury2, Gilbert Sharp3, Jessica A. Cottrell4*

Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, USA

Osteosarcoma is a rare but deadly cancer, predominantly affecting both adolescent and young adult populations. Osteosarcoma occurs when an aggressive malignant neoplasm arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin, which eventually produce a malignancy in the osteoid. Diagnosis of osteosarcoma typically results from symptoms of pain or swelling in the bone, which can be confirmed through laboratory testing of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase levels as well the detection of microscopic and macroscopic lesions. Pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is caused by a diverse set of factors including physical agents, radiation, chromosomal aberrations and viral infection which dysregulate cellular functions. Current research focuses on understanding how microRNAs play a role in osteosarcoma and other aggressive cancers. In this review, we discuss current treatments options including chemoresistant strategies and immunotherapies that show promise at combating osteosarcoma and other cancers.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2967/2018/2.1127 View / Download Pdf